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Astronauts make cement in space for the first time - CNET thumbnail

Astronauts make cement in space for the first time – CNET

mics-gerst.png

European Space Agency astronaut Alexander Gerst works on an experiment aboard the International Space Station looking into how cement reacts in space.


NASA

In the future, when humans live in and visit space, they’re going to need places to stay and work. That calls for durable infrastructure such as concrete. For the first time, astronauts made cement in space as part of a project looking into the effects of microgravity, NASA said last week. 

Concrete is made by combining sand, gravel, rocks and paste made from water and cement powder. It could be a good material to use in space because it’s strong and would offer better protection from extreme temperatures and radiation than many other materials, according to a study published earlier this year. It could also be made with materials available in space, such as dust on the moon. That means we wouldn’t have to bring construction materials to the moon or Mars, effectively cutting back on costs. 

Scientists are looking into how changes in gravity could impact the process of making concrete and how it behaves. Some of the questions they’re looking to answer are how concrete will harden in space and what the microstructure will be.  

An investigation on the International Space Station looked at how cement solidifies in space to better understand the process and potential differences. A project called Microgravity Investigation of Cement Solidification examined whether solidifying cement in microgravity would lead to unique microstructures. It also provided a base for comparing cement samples processed in space versus on Earth. 

Researchers found samples processed on the space station showed significant changes in the cement microstructure when compared to samples from Earth. One of the biggest differences was that there were more open spaces. That could have an effect on the material’s strength, but scientists still have to measure the strength of the cement made in space. 

“Even though concrete has been used for so long on Earth, we still don’t necessarily understand all the aspects of the hydration process,” Aleksandra Radlinska, principal investigator from Pennsylvania State University, said in a release. “Now we know there are some differences between Earth- and space-based systems and we can examine those differences to see which ones are beneficial and which ones are detrimental to using this material in space.”

The microgravity environment of the space station helps to simulate gravity levels on the moon and Mars, offering a peek at how cement could form there. Scientists are currently evaluating cement samples containing simulated lunar particles processed at various gravity levels. 

The finding that concrete can harden and develop in space brings us one giant leap closer to potentially building structures on the moon using native materials. 

“We confirmed the hypothesis that this can be done,” Radlinska said. “Now we can take next steps to find binders that are specific for space and for variable levels of gravity, from zero g to Mars g and in between.”

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RippleMatch nabs $6M for a diversity-focused graduate recruitment platform powered by AI thumbnail

RippleMatch nabs $6M for a diversity-focused graduate recruitment platform powered by AI

LinkedIn, with 645 million users in 200 countries, is the undisputed leader when it comes to being the world’s biggest network of professionals, a position that it uses to leverage products in areas like recruitment and e-learning. But in achieving that size, it hasn’t really developed products for a more targeted approach for specific verticals or audiences. And that has opened the field to a wide variety of startups to fill in the gaps and compete with it. Today, one of these hopefuls — a startup called RippleMatch that has built a recruitment platform to help organizations specifically to connect with recent graduates from more diverse backgrounds that match their needs — is announcing a Series A of $6 million to do just that.

The funding, which will be used to expand the platform, as well as for business development, is being led by G20 Ventures, with Work-Bench, and previous investors Accomplice, Bullpen Capital and AlleyCorp also participating.

The company is not disclosing its valuation, but from what I understand it’s a “material step up,” as it has been on a steady growth curve and counts companies like Pfizer, TripAdvisor and Qualtrics among its customer base. This is also the first significant outside money that it has raised. RippleMatch’s very first funding, in fact, was the signing bonus that co-founder Eric Ho received when he once got a job at Facebook. “It was the need to pay that back that led us to raising this Series A,” joked Andrew Myers, the other co-founder who is also the CEO.

Myers and Ho met and started the company when they were still students at Yale University. Ho was about to graduate, but Myers was still in the thick of his undergrad degree, which he still has yet to complete (and, as is the way of tech founders, may never finish).

The idea for the company came when Myers — who studied history and political science — was thinking about the predicament that a lot of his friends from back home in Colorado were facing in the working world.

Like Myers, they were also undergraduates. But unlike him, they were not at Yale nor any other top-shelf school that has the benefit not only of prestigious name recognition, but typically strong recruiting pipelines to some of the most competitive companies hiring graduates for lucrative entry-level positions.

“I was very cognisant of the divide coming from different socio-economic backgrounds,” Myers said in an interview. “I could see that a lot of my friends from home would be better hires for places than some of the people I knew at Yale. They just didn’t have the same opportunities. We didn’t think of this as a business venture in the early days; it was a problem that our friends had that I wanted to solve.”

Using AI to cut out the recruiter

RippleMatch’s approach is relatively straightforward: The company has built a platform that takes a potential candidate through a relatively quick set of questions about his/her career and geographical ambitions, interests and so on, along with a copy of the candidate’s resume.

It then combines these with basic information about a candidate’s GPA and test scores. Taking all that and combining it with more information sources outside of the candidate’s own input, it comes up with some 300 data points that it crunches together to match candidates with job and internship opportunities. On the employer side, it not only sources job vacancies of the moment, but also works on matching an employer’s wider hiring strategy with this trove of people — the idea being that it’s bringing up possibilities that the employer might have otherwise passed over or not even seen to begin with.

Myers says that the matching algorithms that RippleMatch has built, which include the ability to ascertain what people might directly and indirectly be best suited to do, essentially cut out the “middle man” in the process — that is, the recruiter, as well as potentially the relationships and pipelines that may already exist, thus leveling the playing field for everyone, making it just as likely that an employer will discover their next star hire from a small college in the Midwest as from Stanford.

As Mike Troiano, the partner at G20 who led the firm’s investment in RippleMatch, describes it, a school’s name recognition and networking prowess aren’t the only things standing in the way of qualified candidates getting a look in the door. His daughter was having a hard time getting a response from a company she contacted for an internship and when they put together her LinkedIn profile, they realised that she simply lacked the professional network to figure out if there was someone to contact and help.

“College hiring is kind of a black box through traditional channels. The surveys RippleMatch uses to collect info from students and employers about who they are and what they want to create is a proprietary data set,” said Troiano. “LinkedIn is about relationships more than attributes. The college market is a niche they’re ill-suited to, and one I think they’ll leave alone for now.”

Indeed, while LinkedIn has proven to be a strong starting point for many professionals in their career progression, its shortcomings are most obvious in more specific examples like these. (It was one reason that LinkedIn made a big push some years ago to start trying to bring younger users on to the platform, to work on ways of getting them to start building up their profiles and networks.)

RippleMatch is part of a growing number of startups that have been identifying and (for their purposes) exploiting these kinds of holes in LinkedIn’s wider platform. Another startup that has been building a platform also aimed at graduates and specifically at trying to help source more diverse pools of candidates is Handshake (which itself raised $40 million less than a year ago).

Handshake takes a different approach in that it offers job boards and proactively works with universities and recruitment organizations and offers users a social network / community of sorts from which to source advice and exchange information. All this has helped boost that company’s database to 14 million people as of last year, likely more now that it’s opened up access to all university students in the U.S.

Others that have been pecking away at the LinkedIn hegemony include the likes of Triplebyte, another well-capitalised recruitment startup that specifically targets software engineers. The startup has built its own assessment platform (used by RippleMatch to recruit, incidentally) which its CEO and co-founder Harj Taggar also believes can help level the playing field between those who are coming from big-name companies and schools and those who are not, focusing solely on a person’s ability to code. LinkedIn might have millions of profiles of engineers to Triplebyte’s thousands, but the key with the smaller company is that it has profiles of people “who are actively job searching,” which he notes stands in contrast to the unsolicited contacts that many people get on LinkedIn, just by virtue of being there. “We’re getting two times the rate of responses that recruiting teams see on LinkedIn,” Taggar claimed. It’s now ramping up with a premium tier aimed at those recruiting at scale.

RippleMatch is still at a relatively small and early stage of its life in comparison to these two. While it has partnerships with some 1,200 diversity focused organizations on campuses to bring in more candidates, and today some 60% of its candidate pool are from underrepresented backgrounds, the company today only has about 100,000 candidates in total on the platform, and agreements with 60 companies that tap RippleMatch to find them. But, at a time when the economic, societal and geographic rifts seem insurmountable in countries like the U.S., it’s more important than ever to work on ways to help close those gaps, paving the way for a big opportunity for tech-based solutions like RippleMatch’s.

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Artist turned the world's Snapchats into a musical instrument thumbnail

Artist turned the world’s Snapchats into a musical instrument

A new exhibit now on view at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) highlights the sounds we unthinkingly produce when sending Snapchat videos back and forth. Called “Sound Stories,” it uses the sounds of snaps to comment on themes like social media’s effect on self expression, the nature of art, and interconnectedness. 

“It’s a new kind of audio-visual language,” artist Christian Marclay said. “We’re not really conscious of how we’re expressing ourselves, but we are.”

Perhaps the most curious of the five installations is The Organ: a keyboard that visitors can play, that plays a string of snap video snippets in tune with the pressed note. A chord becomes a collection of sound and moving images, produced by strangers the world over the world, all at once.

In 2017, Snapchat approached Marclay about collaborating on a project that used the publicly submitted snaps in Our Stories. Marclay — an established artist with deep roots in the avant-garde — told Mashable he never could never have imagined himself working with a brand. But the sheer amount of material Snapchat offered him access to was too important to pass up.

“As an artist I have a responsibility to react to what people are doing, and to make people aware of the things they’re doing,” Marclay told Mashable. “Social media cannot be ignored, it’s dominated so much. So this was a great opportunity for me to learn about this platform, and react to it.”

The first room plays a four-minute loop of videos that make a new soundscape.

The first room plays a four-minute loop of videos that make a new soundscape.

Image: photo © Museum Associates/LACMA

A prominent artist since the 1980s, Marclay often utilizes and comments upon sound, video, and communication devices. In the past, he has created new records by splicing together vinyls and playing them as one continuous LP. He is perhaps most famous for his work The Clock, which creates a 24-hour video collage of moments in time in film and television corresponding to the real time on the clock. 

Marclay said that with his interest in making art from what people produce, using Snapchats was a natural continuation of his work — even if the technical elements were new and challenging.

For the project, Snapchat engineers created a database of snap videos that Marclay could search by types of sounds, types of image, and even specific notes. That included building new algorithms to analyze videos and tag the moments that contain, for example, the note “C.” Using this database, Marclay produced five installations in collaboration with Snapchat engineers. (The exhibit was first displayed for five days at the Cannes Lions festival, and will live at LACMA from August 25 to October 19.)

Director of Engineering Andrew Lin explained that Snapchat already had a lot of the categorizing systems in place, thanks to Snap Maps, which analyzes Our Story snaps to populate the map. But categorizing by sound was a whole new challenge. 

Additionally, Lin is used to building tools for millions of users, not one lone artist. “It felt cool, it felt very different for me,” Lin told Mashable. “We were building for someone who has a special talent, and making them bionic.”

Lin felt that the project’s theme of exposing the music in the everyday was particularly suited to Snapchat. “I’ve always thought that Snapchat is a platform where people aren’t trying to show off or brag, they’re just posting like, now what’s happening?” Lin said. “We’re able to showcase that in a way that’s interesting and beautiful.”

Marclay expressed that sound was almost a backdoor way to highlight delight and personality in the totally mundane. 

“Most of it is quite banal and kind of stupid and silly,” Marclay said. “It’s just a little thought, a little thing. I like that lightness.”

A chord becomes a collage.

A chord becomes a collage.

Image: photo © Museum Associates/LACMA

The product is a five-room exhibit that visitors navigate through a series of dark hallways. The first room contains a semi-circle of iPhones. Each plays Snapchat video snippets that align with each other by sound and theme: people walking, people cooking, dogs howling, the crack of a crème brûlée. It’s impossible to watch them all at once, but you can certainly hear them all together; perhaps sound connects us more than we think.

The next room features two larger screens that face each other, both playing a series of snaps that seem to be in dialogue. Who are we talking to when we submit social media content publicly, anyway?

The third room contains The Organ. Pressing a note plays sounds and projects the videos making that sound on the far wall of the room. One note constitutes a photo-strip of five micro-videos; it keeps playing and generating new sounds and videos (in “B” or “E” or whatever note you’re pressing), for as long as you hold it down. Pressing multiple notes at once displays multiple photo strips. It is the world’s unintentional chorus.

The fourth room was the most technically challenging, according to Lin. It is a room strung with hanging iPhones that all say either “Talk to Me” or “Sing to Me.” When you do, the phones in your vicinity mimic you with people also saying hello or whistling a tune. 

Finally, the ceiling of the fifth room contains many domes, each of which can be looked into by only one person, standing below it, at a time. At the top of the domes are tablets playing videos of snaps in “turtle mode,” Snapchat’s slo-mo feature. The effect is almost a reverse “down the rabbit hole” feeling, mimicking the tunnel vision that occurs through endless social media scrolling.

Rabbit hole or looking glass?

Rabbit hole or looking glass?

Image: photo © Museum Associates/LACMA

An exhibit made of Snapchats sounds gimmicky. But the thoughtfulness and technical chops behind the pieces gave them weight and credibility. It was a thought-provoking way to wrap your head around the million moments of expression that live, usually unseen, on the Snapchat servers.

“There’s such a quantity that I wanted to react to that, the same way I did with vinyl and LPs,” Marclay said. “There is this element of the discarded and the recent past. They are these little mementos.”

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Building A Business In Boston: Seven Tips For Getting Started thumbnail

Building A Business In Boston: Seven Tips For Getting Started

Forbes Boston Business Council to discuss the things fellow entrepreneurs need to know when looking to start a company in Boston. Here is what they said:

Photos courtesy of the individual members

1. Build An Employee-Centric Culture

Boston is a competitive, talent-driven market for the best and the brightest. If you aren’t attentive to the needs of your team, they are constantly being recruited by startups and enterprises alike. Creating an employee-centric culture and making sure you are always on the efficient frontier of salary, upside and working environment is vital. – Ted ChanCareDash

2. Do As Much As You Can Yourself At First

In the beginning, you will probably have no revenue, so you have to spend wisely. If you can do the work yourself, do it. Reinvest big windfalls into tools you can use to grow the business. Learn how to work for 20 hours straight, then find out which of your friends are willing to work all night, eat breakfast and return to their normal job. My friends made my business what it is. – Matteo Forgione, P.E.Forgione Engineering, Inc.

Forbes Boston Business Council is the foremost growth and networking organization for business owners in Greater Boston.
Do I qualify?

3. Make Thoughtful, Strategic Connections Beyond The Business Community

One of the best things about Boston—it’s tight-knit community—can also make it tough to navigate for business newcomers. Don’t go it alone. Be thoughtful and strategic about the connections that can and will help grow your business. Think beyond customers and prospects to referral sources, elected/public officials, vendors, employees, funders, strategic partners and community nonprofits. – Sandy LishThe Castle Group

4. Invest In Marketing

My advice to a fellow entrepreneur starting a business in Boston would be to prioritize marketing within the community. We use Hubspot, based in Cambridge, for content media and inbound marketing. It has really helped us get noticed and stand out among the competition. Also, get involved with the community as much as possible through charity work, partnership, events and executive groups. – Joshua HebertMagellan Jets

5. Research Your Target Demographic

I discovered that there was a specific underserved demographic that goes with the tech industry and that’s why these minor programs I introduced were growing so quickly. I pivoted the business services to capture that demographic and it’s been steady growth ever since. If you are already established, find the underserved demographic and see how you can change your business to meet those needs. – Meghan GardnerGuard Up, Inc.

6. Reach Out To Graduates

For every business, its raw material is its qualified workforce, and Boston has that in abundance. Being a college town, you can expect fresh talent every year pouring into the city and help bolster the startup landscape in New England. – Syed GilaniSafr Technologies Inc

7. Attend Networking Events As Often As Possible

Boston is one of those places that is often referred to as the “other Bay Area” This means that it’s viewed as a buzzing metropolis for business and it offers a large range of networking opportunities across all the services you would need to procure to run a successful business. Don’t underestimate the power of networking in a city like Boston. You can attend a gathering every week. – Alex AdamopoulosEmergn Limited

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If you own or are looking to start a business, you likely know that you’ll face a lot of ups and downs during your entrepreneurial journey, especially during the beginning phases. Part of those challenges can come from figuring out how best to build your business in your city of choice. What is the best way to establish yourself locally, for instance, or find skilled employees to help your business grow and shine? And what should you be doing after starting the company, in order to help it grow?

To find out more, we asked members of Forbes Boston Business Council to discuss the things fellow entrepreneurs need to know when looking to start a company in Boston. Here is what they said:

Members discuss a few things to keep in mind when planning on starting a business in Boston.

Photos courtesy of the individual members

1. Build An Employee-Centric Culture

Boston is a competitive, talent-driven market for the best and the brightest. If you aren’t attentive to the needs of your team, they are constantly being recruited by startups and enterprises alike. Creating an employee-centric culture and making sure you are always on the efficient frontier of salary, upside and working environment is vital. – Ted ChanCareDash

2. Do As Much As You Can Yourself At First

In the beginning, you will probably have no revenue, so you have to spend wisely. If you can do the work yourself, do it. Reinvest big windfalls into tools you can use to grow the business. Learn how to work for 20 hours straight, then find out which of your friends are willing to work all night, eat breakfast and return to their normal job. My friends made my business what it is. – Matteo Forgione, P.E.Forgione Engineering, Inc.

3. Make Thoughtful, Strategic Connections Beyond The Business Community

One of the best things about Boston—it’s tight-knit community—can also make it tough to navigate for business newcomers. Don’t go it alone. Be thoughtful and strategic about the connections that can and will help grow your business. Think beyond customers and prospects to referral sources, elected/public officials, vendors, employees, funders, strategic partners and community nonprofits. – Sandy LishThe Castle Group

4. Invest In Marketing

My advice to a fellow entrepreneur starting a business in Boston would be to prioritize marketing within the community. We use Hubspot, based in Cambridge, for content media and inbound marketing. It has really helped us get noticed and stand out among the competition. Also, get involved with the community as much as possible through charity work, partnership, events and executive groups. – Joshua HebertMagellan Jets

5. Research Your Target Demographic

I discovered that there was a specific underserved demographic that goes with the tech industry and that’s why these minor programs I introduced were growing so quickly. I pivoted the business services to capture that demographic and it’s been steady growth ever since. If you are already established, find the underserved demographic and see how you can change your business to meet those needs. – Meghan GardnerGuard Up, Inc.

6. Reach Out To Graduates

For every business, its raw material is its qualified workforce, and Boston has that in abundance. Being a college town, you can expect fresh talent every year pouring into the city and help bolster the startup landscape in New England. – Syed GilaniSafr Technologies Inc

7. Attend Networking Events As Often As Possible

Boston is one of those places that is often referred to as the “other Bay Area” This means that it’s viewed as a buzzing metropolis for business and it offers a large range of networking opportunities across all the services you would need to procure to run a successful business. Don’t underestimate the power of networking in a city like Boston. You can attend a gathering every week. – Alex AdamopoulosEmergn Limited

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Jumpstart Your Android App UI With a Material Design Template thumbnail

Jumpstart Your Android App UI With a Material Design Template

Google’s Material Design is one of the few design languages that have managed to stand the test of time. It’s been around for over five years now, and still continues to enjoy widespread popularity among Android users. The Android platform’s SystemUI adheres to the guidelines of this design language, as do most popular apps available on Google Play today.

Although Material Design’s guidelines are well-documented and easy to understand, implementing them correctly using the Android SDK and AndroidX requires lots of careful coding and testing, primarily because you need to support multiple pixel densities, screen sizes, device orientations, and Android versions. By using MaterialX, however, you can save all that time and effort.

Developed by Envato Elite author Dream Space, MaterialX is a premium Material Design UI components library available on CodeCanyon. In addition to basic UI components such as buttons, cards, and sliders, it offers hundreds of unique, hand-crafted Material Design layouts you can directly start using in your apps. As such, while working with these layouts, you won’t have to worry about tasks such as positioning UI components, adjusting their margins and paddings, or even animating them.

Let us now take a closer look at what MaterialX has to offer.

1. Navigation Components

It is very important that you have an attractive interface that allows users to move from one screen of your app to another. Material Design lists several components you can use to build such an interface, and MaterialX has implementations for all of them.

The most popular such component these days is the bottom navigation bar. MaterialX currently offers eight beautiful bottom navigation bars for you to choose from. Here are two such bars:

Sample bottom navigation bars

If you prefer using sliding drawers instead, this template gives you several options, all of which are geared towards different types of apps. For instance, if you’re building a news app, you can use the Drawer News component. Similarly, if you’re creating a mail-related app, you can use the Drawer Mail component.

Sample drawer components

Tabs, which usually complement top app bars, are also widely used in Android apps. MaterialX has a variety of tab views, which look good in both light and dark themes. As you might expect, all of them support the horizontal swipe gesture.

Sample tab components

2. Lists and Grids

Lists are an integral part of Android apps, and a well-designed list can dramatically improve your app’s user experience. MaterialX offers nearly a dozen different types of lists, including sectioned, animated, and multi-select lists. It also offers a few app-specific lists, such as lists for news apps.

Sample list views

If you need to show more than one item in a row, though, you’ll have to use one of the six different grids this template has. In addition to the commonly used basic and sectioned grids, MaterialX has grids for gallery apps and caller apps.

Sample grids

Cards are often used with both lists and grids. Because MaterialX has card templates for handling most use cases, you can now avoid creating your own cards from scratch. Some of the card templates can be used to create introductory or tutorial screens too.

Sample card view

It’s worth noting that MaterialX has separate components to display smaller lists, such as lists of tags and preferences lists.

3. Forms

Creating forms is hard. Convincing users to fill out and submit forms is harder still. Fortunately, MaterialX comes with a large number of beautiful templates for forms, which your users are going to enjoy filling in.

While creating forms, you are free to choose from either the generic form templates, such as those for sign-in and sign-up forms, or the domain-specific templates, such as those for eCommerce.

Sample forms

To make your life easier, MaterialX also has entire layouts dedicated to specific types of forms. Because these attractive layouts serve as full-fledged containers for the forms, you won’t have to add any other UI components to your layout while using them. Currently, there are layouts for login forms, phone number verification forms, and payment forms.

Dedicated form layouts

Note that many of the form templates have dark-themed alternatives too.

4. Form Elements

If you’re interested in creating forms yourself, instead of directly using Android’s default form elements, you could try using the elements available in MaterialX. They are usually better-looking and provide a more interesting user experience.

The template has a variety of buttons, pickers, and sliders, as you can see in the screenshots below:

Form elements offered by MaterialX

To facilitate displaying form-related messages, the template has several custom implementations for toasts, alert dialogs, and snackbars too.

5. Dashboards

An intuitive dashboard displaying lots of timely and context-sensitive data can be the ideal home screen for many kinds of apps, such as fitness apps, travel apps, and apps related to cryptocurrencies. MaterialX currently has 11 dashboards, each targeting a different domain. For example, here are two dashboard layouts, one for eCommerce apps and one for travel apps: 

Sample dashboards

All the available dashboards are comprehensive, well thought out, and visually pleasing. Therefore, you can usually start using them without having to make any customizations.

6. Social Screens

Adding simple social features to your app is a great way to improve user retention. Typically, all you need to do is allow your users to create profiles for themselves and share content with friends or followers. MaterialX has dozens of components that can help you save time while implementing both these features.

This template has nearly two dozen layouts for profile pages, each with a unique look and feel. While some are generic, most are designed to target certain user groups, such as photographers, freelancers, and job seekers.

Sample profile page layouts

Additionally, MaterialX has layouts for displaying user feeds and timelines. If you’re trying to implement Twitter-like functionality in your app, you’re going to find these layouts extremely helpful.

Layouts for user timelines

Lastly, if you want to allow your users to communicate among themselves or with your team in real time, MaterialX offers layouts that are very similar to those you see in apps like WhatsApp and Telegram.

7. Screens for Blogs

Do you have a WordPress blog already? With MaterialX, you can create an Android app for it effortlessly.

The template has a large variety of layouts you can use for displaying your posts. These pleasant layouts can smoothly render both text and images.

Sample blog layout

Additionally, there are many layouts for “about us” pages, which you can use to talk about yourself or your company, and “search” pages, which you can use while adding search functionality to your app.

Search page and about us page samples

Because blogs these days aren’t limited to just text and images, MaterialX has layouts for handling audio and video content too. The template has two layouts for video players and several for audio players, which support both independent sound files and playlists.

Conclusion

MaterialX is one of the most comprehensive Android app templates available on CodeCanyon. With over 2,250 sales and mostly five-star reviews, it’s also one of the most popular templates there. In my opinion, it’s a must-have for Android developers who want to dramatically improve the looks of their apps.

When you purchase a license for MaterialX, in addition to its source code, you’ll get access to all its documentation. You can refer to it to learn more about the template.

If you found this article useful, do take a look at the following articles too:

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Control: The Kotaku Review thumbnail

Control: The Kotaku Review

Control is the latest game from the makers of Max Payne, Alan Wake, and Quantum Break. It’s a twisted, haunting odyssey through an old post-WWII office building under siege by parasitic beings from another dimension. Control has all the standard elements of a regular third-person shooter, but its exhaustive world building and all-consuming eeriness make it much more.

You play as Jesse, a millenial loner with latent paranormal powers who’s trying to find her brother, Dylan. That search brings her to the Federal Bureau of Control, a secret government department that she believes kidnapped her brother as part of its mission to safeguard the country against other-worldly phenomena. But the FBC, housed in a New York City building called The Oldest House, is under attack by the Hiss, a malevolent, hive-like entity from another dimension that infects the minds of its hosts to bend them to its will.

The building is under lockdown as a result of the attack, which has killed the FBC’s director, Zachariah Trench. His service weapon, a gun that regenerates ammo, attaches itself to Jesse, making her the next director and leaving the player responsible for rallying the remainder of the Bureau and ending the lockdown. Along the way you gain powers like levitation and telekinesis, which allow you to explore new areas and fight in different ways.

Illustration for article titled Control: The Kotaku Review

Video games are full of repetitive actions. Sometimes they feel natural and effortless, like holding the run button in Super Mario Bros.—the sort of thing you don’t even realize you’re doing until you try to stop. Other actions can be laborious, like smashing the grab button in Dishonored as you rummage through a stranger’s belongings, not because you enjoy it, but out of fear that you might miss something if you don’t.

In Control, you can pick up and throw objects with your mind. On PS4 this entails looking at the object you want to move and holding down the right shoulder button. During my time with the game I did this hundreds of times: sometimes to clear a path forward, other times to kill enemies, and often because of the sheer pleasure I got out of ripping up a piece of the world and watching it float beside me, patiently waiting for my next command. It became neither monotonous or unconscious. At first the objects accelerate toward you, crashing into whatever might be in their way, before slowing down as they approach until they’re hanging idly in the air, only to speed back up again when eventually launched. This slightest bit of simulated resistance is visually and tactilely convincing.

Illustration for article titled Control: The Kotaku Review

I’ve thrown copy machines, trash cans, toilets, fire extinguishers, lamps, guard rails, oil drums, storage racks, office chairs, tables, potted plants, fans, and dozens of other pieces of debris. In addition to being able to grab hold of almost any object, nearly everything in The Oldest House can be destroyed. With a press of a button, wood splinters, rock crumbles, and stacks of paper detonate. The world eventually resets once you’ve wandered off long enough, which is part of the ancient power of The Oldest House. But the sumptuous sounds and visual detail of destruction never get old, whether hurling a filing cabinet at an enemy or just to see what kind of mark it leaves on the wall. It makes the world feel alive.

There are also practical consequences during combat. You can crouch behind cover, but I often destroyed that cover in my hunt for raw material to pummel the Hiss with. Like her regenerating service weapon, Jesse’s powers continuously recharge, quite rapidly in fact, encouraging you to trade off back and forth between bullets and telekinetic attacks, all while scurrying between cover. The Hiss usually attack in waves of five or more. Most are grunts carrying basic firearms. while others have supernatural powers similar to Jesse’s. A few wield rocket launchers and grenades, which an upgrade to Jesse’s abilities allows her to throw back at them. It’s incredibly satisfying, if sometimes hard to time. While the individual Hiss don’t have strong identities, collectively their abilities complement one another just enough to poise a real threat and force you to stay creative about how you demolish them.

At one point in the end of the game I was floating through the air dodging hunks of metal and gunfire while unloading on the enemies below me. Summoning a fire extinguisher, I hurled it at the forklift one of the Hiss was hiding behind, only to have it blow up, triggering a chain reaction with a nearby oil drum. The particle effects were beautiful, though they promptly sent the game’s framerate plummeting. In these moments, or others where action was taking place in some of the game’s larger zones, the game would chug. Control never crashed, even when it looked like it really wanted to, but it’s clear the game was operating at the limits of what my PS4 can handle. These technical obstacles never stopped me from enjoying the game or led me to accidentally die during a fight, but they did make me wonder just how much more enjoyable the game’s bigger shootouts could be on hardware that could actually handle them.

The game’s main story progresses at a steady clip. It’s told through short cutscenes and conversations with other characters, which are seamlessly interspersed with live-action footage, a technique Remedy Entertainment pioneered in 2016’s Quantum Break but which is used more sparingly in Control to maximize its unsettling effect. The jargon-heavy story, which starts out promisingly enough, never seems to quite deliver on its threat of menacing revelations, ending up more like a workplace drama than a mind-bending psychological horror show. Despite a tragic past, the emotional trauma of losing her brother, and finding herself trapped in a building governed by a dozen competing logics and accosted by demonically possessed bureaucrats at every turn, Jesse resists ever becoming completely overwhelmed by the strange events around her. She rolls with it, her fear softened by occasionally cheesy humor and an ongoing internal monologue, and the fact that she has a magical magnum and occult super powers.

While Jesse helps keep Control moored, The Oldest House is its true star. It’s a sprawling labyrinth of mid-century modern office interiors and long polished granite hallways. You start at the executive level, a series of open office areas filled with row after row of empty desk. As you travel through the House, it expands and deepens. You descend into the maintenance facilities, an underground network of pipes, control rooms, and atomic age machinery. Though you have the top-level blueprints for the entire building at your disposal, each subsequent level becomes harder to navigate and increasingly filled with enemies.

Illustration for article titled Control: The Kotaku Review

The Oldest House is linked together by a series of control points, little ritual spots on the ground that look similar to pentagrams. When Jesse encounters one, she can purge it of the Hiss’ corrupting influence and use it to heal, upgrade abilities and equipment, and fast travel to any previously unlocked control point. Outside of this network, there are some areas that can only be accessed on foot through elevators and back hallways, and still others that don’t show up on the map at all, linked via hanging light switches situated throughout the building that transport Jesse to a distant hotel and then back again to a new area. On paper, you progress through Control like any metroidvania-style game, in which acquiring new abilities and reaching new story beats allow you to backtrack and rediscover new parts of old areas. But the points that connect The Oldest House non-linearly to other planes of existence and back again make it feel like something more than just a effusively stylish, hyper-competent iteration of the formula.

At one point during the game Jesse remarks that while she should be terrified of The Oldest House, she actually finds its sinister sense of mystery inviting. The secret passages, rooms that metamorphose like a kaleidoscope, and invisible rifts to other planes of existence are affirming, manifestations that acknowledge the weirdness the rest of the FBC’s pencil pushers would prefer to measure and codify. As you unlock more powers, The Oldest House becomes open to your poking and prodding, and its little details—an office covered top to bottom in post-it notes, manic writing on a chalkboard—are as interesting as anything else in the game and well worth combing through its world for.

Illustration for article titled Control: The Kotaku Review

Modifications for Jesse and her weapons are also hidden throughout the building, or drop from enemies. This equipment offers stat bonuses to Jesse’s health, the recharge time for her powers, or the accuracy or damage of her weapons. You can also create your own mods from the crafting materials with names like Entropic Echo and Ritual Impulse procured during exploration and combat. But they’re all random, so you never quite know what you’re going to get. Additional resources can be spent to upgrade the level of the mods you can create. Contrary to how taut the rest of the game feels, the mod system, which provide boosts to things like health, power recharge speed, and shot accuracy, is mostly superfluous until you’re facing some of the game’s harder side missions, where grinding to get an additional five percent boost to gun damage might actually make a difference. Compared to everything else in The Oldest House, the mods, and the chests holding them, feel like filler.

Illustration for article titled Control: The Kotaku Review

More alluring are the pieces of lore are generously scattered throughout The Oldest House. Classified files, snippets of research, recorded interviews, and other fragments of intel elaborate on the building’s history, the competing interests of its top leaders, and inklings of who the Hiss are and what they want. Some of the game’s best writing, in keeping with Remedy’s track record, is tucked away in this secondary literature, making rummaging through every foreboding room a rewarding treasure hunt. These collectibles tell the story of a bureaucracy warped by its obsessions, which the game so beautifully conveys through the House’s ever-warping brutalist architecture.

Hidden in the depths of the Oldest House are beings you can’t destroy called Thresholds. They’re harrowing and deadly to come across, but on the surface a Threshold is just a cloud of rocks vibrating in intense patterns, as if screaming from having been severed from the rest of the rock during the construction of the building. I wanted to explore every dark corner and seemingly mundane board room of The Oldest House in hopes of discovering the secret behind the pulsing rock creature, or at least come across other equally weird anomalies.

Illustration for article titled Control: The Kotaku Review

Throughout the entirety of Control I had the sneaking suspicion that maybe these strange rock creatures were victims rather than monsters, marooned by the excesses and abuses of the FBC, just as Jesse believes her brother was. Dr. Darling, the Bureau’s top scientist, is depicted in a series of video reports littered about the building as a brilliant man too blinded by how good he is at his job to stop and wonder if it was the right one to be doing. As the game goes on, Jesse falls under a similar spell. It turns out she’s very good at killing the Hiss and helping the rest of the staff accomplish their tasks. Whether perpetuating this rudderless careerism is ultimately a good thing or not is a question the game does a commendable job of not answering.

Control utilizes Jesse’s journey from FBC new hire to employee of the month to showcase a workplace torn asunder by forces from a world beyond and bleeding out horrors. “A house is a machine for living in,” brutalist architect Le Corbusier wrote in his 1923 book Towards A New Architecture. The life that Control’s house makes possible is secretive, full of small compartments and hidden layers where the weirdness some people would prefer to bring under the harsh control of reason and protocol can blossom. Even if Jesse is ostensibly an occult cop working for the man, Remedy has made The Oldest House a machine without a master, leaving what it produces—shadowy histories, dazzling flights, no shortage of abysses that stare back—to whoever’s willing to venture inside.

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How to build bases in No Man's Sky thumbnail

How to build bases in No Man’s Sky

Building bases has been a staple in No Man’s Sky for a while now and with the latest update comes a whole new raft of building materials. With the influx of new players, and players returning to the game from years prior, we thought a base-building primer might help you get started in your new construction career.

What are bases?

Bases are your home in No Man’s Sky. They are permanent structures that can house all the equipment you need to play No Man’s Sky. From refineries, all the way to huge power stations and portals, your base can house them all.

Bases are also safe havens from the trials of the world you choose to live on. A lot of the planets on NMS have hazards that drain your life support and even if they are relatively clear, big storms can come from nowhere. As soon as you have a base with walls and a roof, you are safe from all the elements.

Location Location Location

Where to build bases

Finding the right place to build your home base is key. The game actively tries to get you to build your base early, on a planet it selects for you at random. This isn’t ideal as, more often than not, the planets around you are poisonous balls of deathly death, and you may not want to set up your permanent base there.

It always pays to take a look around the solar system you are in first, to find the best planet you can. Building the Hyperspace engine takes a little while, so you may not be able to go out of the system, but you don’t have to pick the nightmare-scape that Hello Games will randomly choose for you.

As far as building supplies go, you will want to look for planets with high concentrations of copper and carbon to start with. Of course, the more precious metals you have, the better — eventually you will need some money — but copper and carbon are the two building blocks of the game.

Where to find carbon

Everywhere, that’s where you can find it. Almost every planet has an abundance of carbon, especially if it has any fauna. Trees and plants give you a lot of carbon, though there are other ways to get it if you choose to live on a lifeless planet.

I cannot stress this enough; you can never have too much carbon. Early in the game, your buildings will be made from it, your refinery is powered by it, even the tool you use to get carbon needs carbon to power it. In other words, spend some time farming carbon from around the location you want to build your base. It will help clear the land for building anyway.

Where to find copper

Copper is a fairly common element in No Man’s Sky, but you may have to go off the original planet to find it. The easiest way is to head out into space once you have fixed your ship and use your scanner to scan the nearby planets once you are out of the atmosphere. This will highlight the common elements they have on them and you should be able to find a copper one in short order.

Head over to the area where you found the copper and start the harvest. You will need to have your terrain manipulator ready to go to get the copper out of the ground, and you will want to spend some time stocking up if you aren’t interested in staying on the copper-rich planet.

Machines you will need

There are several pieces of equipment you will need to build before you can start construction of your dream house, and one you will need to make that house a home.

Portable refiner

The portable refiner is one of the most important pieces of machinery in No Man’s Sky because it allows you to make all the complex metals you’ll need from the base elements you find on the worlds you visit.

Making a refiner is easy and uses just base elements, Ferrite dust — made into metal plating — and Oxygen. The blueprint for it is given to you as part of the main tutorial, so you should be able to find it by pressing up on the D-pad and selecting the Tech section.

Once you have a portable refiner built, you can use it as much as you like as long as you have the carbon you need power it. Remember the refiner is portable, so it’s often worth having one with you at all times — you can pick it up by holding square — while building another to leave at home.

Base computer

The base computer is the central hub of your base and is required to actually call a place your “Home base” in-game. Now that you have built your portable refiner, you can make this easily enough. The blueprint for the base computer is given to you as you play the game so by the time you are ready to build one, you should have the blueprint.

You will need to use the refiner to refine copper into chromatic metal, but that’s all you need. The base computer can be found in the Tech section of your build menu.

I would recommend finding a good spot for your base computer before you lay it down. It isn’t portable, so once you pick a place, that’s where it will stay. I made the mistake of putting it too close to a piece of scenery and it stopped me being able to build my base around it. Mine just sits outside now.

Construction Research Unit

While the Construction Research Unit (CRU) is not needed to make your original base, it will be needed to upgrade your base to new materials like metal or cement, as well as for adding new types of building pieces, like corner roofs or iris doors.

The construction needs only one carbon nanotube — you can make that in your backpack inventory out of carbon — and 20 magnetized ferrite. Magnetized ferrite is a double refined material that can be found in the world like copper, or refined from pure Ferrite. If you refine ferrite dust into pure ferrite, then put that pure ferrite back in the refiner it will become magnetized ferrite.

You do lose half your supply if you do it this way — it takes two ferrite dust to make one pure ferrite — but that’s better than walking across the whole world looking for it in some rocks.

How to build a base

The actual placement of buildings is pretty straightforward. The game gives you a lot of visual cues, as well as using a snapping technique to line up the corresponding edges so it’s easy to lay stuff down.

Once you have all the resources you need — you don’t have enough carbon, go grab some more — and all the machines pre-built, it’s time to start building!

  1. Find a large, clear area.
  2. Press down on your controllers D-pad to access the build menu.

  3. Use the left/right D-pad to navigate to Structures.
  4. Press up on the D-pad to access the Wooden structures.

  5. Select the piece you want to lay on the floor.
  6. Move the left thumbstick to choose its position.
  7. Press the R2 button to place the object into the world.
  8. Select the wall piece you want to use. Remember: each base needs at least one door panel.

  9. Use the ghostly outline to line up the walls where you want them.
  10. Press R2 to set the wall in place.
  11. Repeat until you complete your awesome house.

Upgrading your base

Everything we have spoken about above merely scratches the surface of what is possible with base building. We have provided you the building blocks (pun intended) but you will need to spend a lot of your time in the game perfecting your building skills.

Remember, building materials are key to the game, and if you want to build giant fortresses of glass and metal, you will need to find a place that has plenty of materials to make that happen.

I would also suggest building a portal, or finding an area with a terminal to build near early on in your building process. There are materials you will need to buy and having an easy way to buy things is extremely important.

Show us your creations

We would love to see your bases and for you to give us and the other readers your tips for making amazing bases. Head over to our Twitter and post us some screenshots!

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Bright, Modern and Ecological Exploration Centre thumbnail

Bright, Modern and Ecological Exploration Centre

Cardin Julien designed the reception pavilion for the new Mille-Îles River Park’s multifunction center in Laval, Québec, close to Montréal.

The building has many windows and was built with great environmental awareness. The project aims for a LEED NC 2009 level GOLD certification, water-saving was made through the use of rainwater, and the economy energy is at the heart of building design by the performance of the building envelope and the integration of plants (roofs and walls).

«In order for the project to integrate seamlessly into its environment, the use of wood was recommended for the building’s exterior. This material, which can also be found inside the building, fosters a warm environment and allows a connection between visitors and the nature around them. In addition, the structure was built in such a way that it preserves the mature trees growing on-site», we learn in the press release.

Credits: David Boyer

http://www.fubiz.net/ http://www.fubiz.net/ http://www.fubiz.net/ http://www.fubiz.net/ http://www.fubiz.net/ http://www.fubiz.net/

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Disappearing Plastics Stay Strong in the Shadows and Melt Away in the Sun thumbnail

Disappearing Plastics Stay Strong in the Shadows and Melt Away in the Sun

trying to craft temporary plastics. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has an entire program—dubbed Inbound, Controlled, Air-Releasable, Unrecoverable Systems, or ICARUS—to fund research that could lead to the development of disappearing air-delivery vehicles, including Georgia Tech’s work.

A glider wing made from the polymer dissolves in sunlight. Credit: Paul Kohl

The task is daunting. Plastic consists of synthetic polymers, long chains of smaller molecules linked with superstrong bonds. Reverting them to their building blocks requires breaking each bond, akin to ripping apart a necklace bead by bead. Because this process can be affected by humidity, acidity, temperature and other factors in a material’s environment, the breakdown can take months—if it happens at all. “There are many synthetic plastics that kind of degrade,” Kohl says, “but it’s a slow and painful process.”

To make durable plastics that quickly destruct on command, Kohl’s team and some other researchers have turned to a molecule called poly(phthalaldehyde) (PPHA). Like all polymers, this one splits up into its building blocks when heated above a certain temperature. But in contrast to the plastics used in bottles and packaging, which only break down at very high heat, PPHA unravels while still below room temperature. This property makes it easy to break down but hard to stabilize.

To trick PPHA into being pseudo stable, Kohl and his colleagues linked the chain into a circle. “It only depolymerizes from the end inward,” Kohl says. With its tips linked together, the chain does not break down as easily. “It’s like peeling a banana,” Kohl explains. “It’s hard to peel from the middle.” Although the circle structure keeps the modified PPHA from breaking down at a typical room temperature, if a trigger snips just one bond, “the whole thing instantly depolymerizes and completely falls apart,” he says.

“It’s pretty clever, the way they have designed the polymer to unzip from that one bond breaking,” says Andrew Dove, a professor of chemistry at the University of Birmingham in England, who was not involved in the new research. The Georgia Tech team further fine-tuned the unzipping process by adding a soup of chemicals to the circular PPHA. In order to trigger the polymer’s undoing on command, the researchers mixed in a compound that becomes acidic in the presence of sunlight and then attacks PPHA bonds. And to slow down the speed of this degradation—thus giving a simple flying machine such as a glider enough time to complete its mission—they added additional compounds that react with and weaken the acid.

Even in its circular form, though, the PPHA was initially not quite stable enough for a long haul. Kohl and his colleagues discovered that impurities in the polymer—mainly traces of the catalyst boron trifluoride, which is used to assemble PPHA chains—were the main culprit. By removing all such impurities, they have boosted the material’s shelf life. “It should last for 20 years indoors, at room temperature,” Kohl says. “Fluorescent light does not bother it.”

Despite these improvements, the resulting plastic was hard to use because of its relatively brittle texture. But at the American Chemical Society meeting, Kohl announced that he and his colleagues have fixed that problem by adding ionic liquids—salts in liquid form—to the plastic. Doing so alters its mechanical properties in different ways: one type of ionic liquid makes the plastic tough and hard, perfect for glider wings, while another renders it soft and foldable for other uses, Kohl says.

DARPA has already used the plastic to make light, strong gliders and parachutes. Last October the agency field-tested one of these vehicles: dropped from a high-altitude balloon at night, a glider successfully delivered a three-pound package to a spot 100 miles away. After four hours in the sun, it vanished, leaving behind nothing but an oily smudge on the ground. Kohl says the plastic could dissolve even faster under a glaring midday sun, in some cases taking as little as five minutes.

The new plastic still faces challenges. For example, Dove emphasizes that the light-triggered degradation will limit its uses. “It’s a great idea,” he says, “but I’m not sure it’s going to translate into consumer plastics.” What’s left behind when the plastic disintegrates also matters. Nothing disappears completely, points out Ann-Christine Albertsson, a chemist at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden. “The degradation products and how they interfere with the environment are important,” she says.

In this case, the leftover products—that oily smudge that was once the test glider—primarily consist of the ionic liquids with which the researchers treated the polymer. These substances are antimicrobial chemicals, similar to ones “used in hospitals in antibacterial wipes,” Kohl says. “However, they would not be appropriate for human consumption or touching food products. In the future, we will try to change them to [be] vaporizable.”

Read More

Disappearing Plastics Stay Strong in the Shadows and Melt Away in the Sun thumbnail

Disappearing Plastics Stay Strong in the Shadows and Melt Away in the Sun

trying to craft temporary plastics. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has an entire program—dubbed Inbound, Controlled, Air-Releasable, Unrecoverable Systems, or ICARUS—to fund research that could lead to the development of disappearing air-delivery vehicles, including Georgia Tech’s work.

A glider wing made from the polymer dissolves in sunlight. Credit: Paul Kohl

The task is daunting. Plastic consists of synthetic polymers, long chains of smaller molecules linked with superstrong bonds. Reverting them to their building blocks requires breaking each bond, akin to ripping apart a necklace bead by bead. Because this process can be affected by humidity, acidity, temperature and other factors in a material’s environment, the breakdown can take months—if it happens at all. “There are many synthetic plastics that kind of degrade,” Kohl says, “but it’s a slow and painful process.”

To make durable plastics that quickly destruct on command, Kohl’s team and some other researchers have turned to a molecule called poly(phthalaldehyde) (PPHA). Like all polymers, this one splits up into its building blocks when heated above a certain temperature. But in contrast to the plastics used in bottles and packaging, which only break down at very high heat, PPHA unravels while still below room temperature. This property makes it easy to break down but hard to stabilize.

To trick PPHA into being pseudo stable, Kohl and his colleagues linked the chain into a circle. “It only depolymerizes from the end inward,” Kohl says. With its tips linked together, the chain does not break down as easily. “It’s like peeling a banana,” Kohl explains. “It’s hard to peel from the middle.” Although the circle structure keeps the modified PPHA from breaking down at a typical room temperature, if a trigger snips just one bond, “the whole thing instantly depolymerizes and completely falls apart,” he says.

“It’s pretty clever, the way they have designed the polymer to unzip from that one bond breaking,” says Andrew Dove, a professor of chemistry at the University of Birmingham in England, who was not involved in the new research. The Georgia Tech team further fine-tuned the unzipping process by adding a soup of chemicals to the circular PPHA. In order to trigger the polymer’s undoing on command, the researchers mixed in a compound that becomes acidic in the presence of sunlight and then attacks PPHA bonds. And to slow down the speed of this degradation—thus giving a simple flying machine such as a glider enough time to complete its mission—they added additional compounds that react with and weaken the acid.

Even in its circular form, though, the PPHA was initially not quite stable enough for a long haul. Kohl and his colleagues discovered that impurities in the polymer—mainly traces of the catalyst boron trifluoride, which is used to assemble PPHA chains—were the main culprit. By removing all such impurities, they have boosted the material’s shelf life. “It should last for 20 years indoors, at room temperature,” Kohl says. “Fluorescent light does not bother it.”

Despite these improvements, the resulting plastic was hard to use because of its relatively brittle texture. But at the American Chemical Society meeting, Kohl announced that he and his colleagues have fixed that problem by adding ionic liquids—salts in liquid form—to the plastic. Doing so alters its mechanical properties in different ways: one type of ionic liquid makes the plastic tough and hard, perfect for glider wings, while another renders it soft and foldable for other uses, Kohl says.

DARPA has already used the plastic to make light, strong gliders and parachutes. Last October the agency field-tested one of these vehicles: dropped from a high-altitude balloon at night, a glider successfully delivered a three-pound package to a spot 100 miles away. After four hours in the sun, it vanished, leaving behind nothing but an oily smudge on the ground. Kohl says the plastic could dissolve even faster under a glaring midday sun, in some cases taking as little as five minutes.

The new plastic still faces challenges. For example, Dove emphasizes that the light-triggered degradation will limit its uses. “It’s a great idea,” he says, “but I’m not sure it’s going to translate into consumer plastics.” What’s left behind when the plastic disintegrates also matters. Nothing disappears completely, points out Ann-Christine Albertsson, a chemist at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden. “The degradation products and how they interfere with the environment are important,” she says.

In this case, the leftover products—that oily smudge that was once the test glider—primarily consist of the ionic liquids with which the researchers treated the polymer. These substances are antimicrobial chemicals, similar to ones “used in hospitals in antibacterial wipes,” Kohl says. “However, they would not be appropriate for human consumption or touching food products. In the future, we will try to change them to [be] vaporizable.”

Read More